Transition from Home Education to Higher Education: Academic and Social Issues

Transition from Home Education to Higher Education: Academic and Social Issues

When transitioning to the classroom, it is assumed by many that home-educated students may be unaware of academic and social norms, which can be perplexing for educators and overwhelming for the student (Romanowski, 2002). With nearly 2 million home-educated students nationwide (Lines 2000; Ray 2004b), a moderate 7% estimated increase of home-educated students per year (Lines 1998), and 69% pursuing higher education (Ray, 2004b) the number of home-educated students who will attend college and university is growing. It is estimated that 30,000 homeschooled students begin attending college per year (Cox 2003). As this number continues to increase it is important for home school families, advocates and policy makers to learn from undergraduate students who have already made the transition from home-education to higher education.

Throughout the centuries, parent-led home-based education was the norm. The history of education in America shows the United States is not the exception. Even when a combination of tutors, apprenticeships and schoolhouses were used, education centered around the home with parents directly responsible for the education of their children (Carson 1987, Cremin 1975, Stevens 2001). It wasn’t until 1918 that compulsory attendance laws had been passed in all 50 states (Katz 1976) which declared home-education illegal in most states and superseded a parent’s right to direct the education of their children. As a result, the 20th century saw educational responsibility shift from the parent to the state government (Klicka 2002). Home-education soon reemerged in the 1970s as a reaction against the bureaucracy of public schools with a handful of parents who were dissatisfied with the one-size-fits-all model of educating the masses (Stevens 2001). Critics of this renewed home-education movement were concerned students would emerge as social misfits, incapable of attaining success in college and generally unprepared for citizenship (Medlin 2000, Romanowski, 2006). Research emerged showing the academic (Rudner, 1999) and social (Medlin, 2000) successes of K-12 home-educated students and the media reported as home schooled students won national spelling bees and matriculated to Ivy Leagues (McCusker, 2002). As the first generation of home-educated students reached adulthood, research indicated they became functioning, successful adults and well-rounded citizens (Ray, 2004a).

A few studies have been conducted on home-educated students and their college experience, yet more research in this area is needed. Some studies show home-educated college students perform better on ACT tests (Galloway 1995, Holder 2001), and have higher grade point averages than their traditionally schooled peers (Holder 2001). Others indicate no statistically significant difference between the SAT scores, ACT scores and grades of college students who were home educated and those who attended traditional schools (Jones & Gloeckner, 2004b). A study conducted by Vivian Lattibeaudiere (2000) of 25 college students who had been home-educated indicated their transition experience was positive and successful although they were a little bit slower in adjusting to the peer social setting.

Another study of 17 college students who had been home-educated indicated students experience a high level of social success in college as a result of the variety of clubs, groups, and organizations they participated in during their secondary years (Holder 2001). Current research shows home-educated students are equally prepared for college and achieve success comparably to formally educated students (Jones and Gloeckner 2004b, Sutton and Galloway 2000). The current study was designed to add to this body of literature. Given the high numbers of home-schooled students expected to pursue university study, additional research concerning their college transition would prove beneficial.

Purpose

 

The purpose of this study is to understand academic and social attitudes among home-educated undergraduates in an effort tolearn from their experience and understand challenges they face as they adjust to university life. A comparative study of 215 undergraduates was conducted in 2005 to discover if academic and social differences exist between homeschooled students and their conventionally educated peers who attended public or private school. This report focuses on a subsample of 28 undergraduates who were home-educated for a majority of their primary and secondary education and, as a point of reference, compares their responses to the remaining participants who comprise the private and public school subsamples. The results of this study contribute to the current discussion regarding the transition experience of home-educated students to institutions of higher-education. Outcomes may inform the practices of home-educators who are teaching college-bound students and lend suggestions to those seeking to empower home-educated students as they adjust to a new learning environment.

Method

 

Participants

 

The target population included all undergraduate students from a 4-year Christian university in Southern California. The 215 study participants were volunteer undergraduate students who attended the same institution. The sample was categorized into three subsample groups based on the number of years a student attended a public, private or home school. Sixty-three percent of participants attended public school, 24% attended private school and 13% were home-educated for a majority of their educational experience, seven years or more. Fifty-four students reported being homeschooled for a period of time but only those who were home-educated for more than seven years were included in the subsample. This report focuses on the 13% or 28 students who comprise the home-educated subsample.

Materials

 

Participants completed a three page questionnaire that queried demographic information as well as each participant’s attitude toward past and present academic and social experiences. A brief letter of explanation was printed on the cover with a promise of confidentiality and expression of gratitude. Fill-in-the-blank sections and check-off boxes were created to record demographic information and record past and present involvement in academic and social activities. A 30-item Likert scale was designed for participants to self-report social and academic perceptions. An additional section was included for home-educated respondents to select the frequency and types of academic and extra-curricular activities they were involved in as a homeschooler. A second instrument, an email interview with four questions, was used to query the home-educated participants. Four members of the home-educated subsample shared further thoughts and reflections based on their experience.

Design and Procedure

 

After contacting several departments at the university, the researcher gained a level of entry with permission to survey students.

Several means were taken to protect the authenticity of responses. To reduce the potential for biased responses, home-educated students were not solely targeted for this study. A non-probability method of sampling was used and the questionnaire was distributed to any student who volunteered to participate. Participants were guaranteed anonymity in the report findings as another means to secure genuine responses. Data was collected in an authentic, natural setting which enhanced the credibility of responses because the atmosphere was familiar and not contrived.

Precautions were taken to ensure the sample was loosely representative of the undergraduate population. Institutional research provided demographic and academic information that was used to compare the sample to the total population of students (Table 1). Careful consideration of location and time-frame for distribution of surveys also provided a measure of representativeness. Questionnaires were distributed from a central campus location that attracts the student body for many reasons (thoroughfare to post office, student mail boxes, computer store, bookstore, diner, coffee shop, patio and main campus walkway). Questionnaires were gathered on two full-days to ensure that students with varying schedules would not automatically be excluded from participation.

Preparing Data

 

Predetermined identification numbers were attributed to each participant when data was input into a computerized spreadsheet application. The data was entered by rows for individuals and columns were used to record variables. Instead of assigning scores or values to response options, names or character strings were used to make the document understandable. Data was cleaned and visually inspected to identify missing information or errors. Variables were also sorted within their column to detect potential errors. Data was sorted, scored, and analyzed within the three subsample groups.

Scoring

 

Variables that provided multiple responses and allowed the participants to “check all that apply” were scored before being analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied to variables that had been scored to check for measures of central tendency and variability. Responses provided using a Likert scale were sorted and visually arranged into charts based on frequency and percent.

 

 

 

Table 1. Demographics of Population, Sample and Subsample: Academic Year and Gender

 

Total Population Sample Population  

Home

 

Public

 

Private

Academic Year
Freshman 28% 29% 32% 29% 30%
Sophomores 23% 23% 25% 25% 24%
Juniors 22% 22% 18% 22% 24%
Seniors 27% 22% 25% 23% 18%
Not available 3% 1% 4%
Gender
Female 62% 68% 68% 76% 71%
Male 38% 26% 32% 20% 28%
Not available 7% 4% 1%

Results

 

Results describe the K-12 and college experience of the home-educated subsample in relation to the experience of their formerly educated peers. Since primary/secondary education lay a foundation for success in college, this study was interested in learning about the pre-collegiate experience of the participants as well. Participants shared their level of satisfaction with their K-12 education and reflected on whether those academic and social experiences prepared them for university. These results provide a background and context for understanding the participant’s university experience. Results then show attitudes regarding the respondent’s current university experience along with their opinion of their abilities, successes and adjustment to the university environment.

 

Primary/Secondary Experience: Academic and Social

 

Respondents were asked to identify a variety of learning strategies that were incorporated into their primary and secondary learning experience. By selecting from 20 learning strategies, respondents provided a descriptive portrait of their academic learning experience prior to university. Respondents were not restricted to the number of learning tools they could select–they were instructed to “check all that apply.” Response options included a variety of learning tools ranging from textbooks to interactive skits, small group projects, and multimedia activities. Home-educated respondents reported a higher use of creative writing, hands-on activities, online and video supplements, along with workbooks, tests, and tutors (Table 2). The home-educated participants reported participating in group projects at a significantly lower rate than their peers. Private and home-schooled students reported using skits as a learning activity at a higher rate than those who attended public school. All responses were scored, tallied and analyzed for central tendency and variability. The mean score for each group shows the amount of learning tools used during their primary and secondary education. Home-educated respondents reported learning through an average of 11.32 different strategies. The mean score for those who had attended private school was 10.54 and the mean score for those who attended public school was 10.69. Differences existed in rate and types of learning tools that supplemented the participants K-12 experience. Yet, results showed the educational experience of each group was enhanced by a robust variety of learning methods or activities.

Respondents identified the types of social activities they participated in during their primary and secondary years. This social section was designed to compare the pre-collegiate level of social involvement between the home-educated participants and their peers. A selection of 14 different extracurricular activities was provided. Choices included music lessons, scouting programs, sports and clubs among others. Respondents were not restricted to the number of activities they could select. The instruction to “check all that apply,” was given. All responses were tallied, percentages were calculated for each activity and each sample group and a comparison table was created (Table 3). It was discovered that home-educated students took part in scouting groups and in sports at a lower rate than those who attended public and private school. Homeschool students reported involvement in dance, church groups, employment, arts, martial arts, and foreign language studies at a higher rate than their traditionally schooled peers. The responses for each participant were scored and the mean was calculated for each group. On average the formerly home-educated students participated in 5.7 activities, whereas the mean score for public school students was 4.8 and the score for private school students was 4.6. Results showed the home-educated students were not more socially isolated than their peers. Though the types of activities varied between the subsamples, findings show the home-educated undergraduates were very involved in social activities during their school years.

 

 

Table 2. Learning Strategies Utilized in K-12 Education

Learning Tools

Home (n=28)

Public (n=136)

Private (n=51)

Text

89%

85%

92%

Workbooks

79%

68%

67%

Skits

43%

36%

41%

Library

61%

68%

62%

Online

25%

15%

8%

Group Projects

38%

73%

65%

Novels

43%

50%

41%

Video

61%

54%

51%

Portfolio

14%

29%

14%

Essays

86%

81%

84%

Creative writing

89%

69%

67%

Computer

71%

74%

65%

Tutor

36%

13%

31%

After-school programs

18%

24%

33%

Field trips

79%

76%

71%

Tests

86%

78%

71%

Hands-on

96%

83%

76%

Internet

57%

45%

49%

Music

68%

44%

65%

Note. Respondents could select more than one option therefore values do not add up to 100%
 

Central tendency and variability

Median

11

11

11

Mode

11

10

11

Mean

11.32

10.69

10.54

Std. Deviation

3.50

4.64

4.78

Range

17

19

18

Minimum

1

0

1

Maximum

18

19

19

 

Table 3. Participation in Social Activities in during K-12

Activities

Home

n=28

Public

n=136

Private

n=51

Music

64%

52%

73%

Scouts

11%

33%

16%

Voluntary Service

46%

57%

49%

Clubs

32%

32%

16%

Dance

50%

22%

29%

Church

96%

78%

75%

Work

57%

42%

35%

Other

14%

6%

10%

Art

36%

15%

22%

Martial Arts

18%

11%

6%

Library

18%

10%

8%

Sports

40%

63%

65%

Foreign Language

57%

35%

33%

Parks and Recreation

29%

33%

25%

 

 

Participants shared their level of satisfaction and attitude toward their early educational experience via Likert scale statements where they were given 5 response options ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. A majority of the participants agreed they were “satisfied” with their early educational experience. They home-educated and private school groups agreed they were satisfied a higher rate than their peers who attended public school (Table 4). Students were asked to respond to the statement: “Compared to other students the quality of my early education was poor and put me at a disadvantage academically.” A very low percentage of the participants reported dissatisfaction with their K-12 experience. Although the results are not statistically significant, a smaller amount of home-educated participants reported being dissatisfied with their previous education. Twenty-eight percent of the private school group and 29% of the public school group agreed they would consider home-education as an option for their children; whereas 89% of the home-educated group reported they would consider home-education for their children.

Results show the home-educated sample was satisfied with their K-12 education and that the vast majority of home-educated students would consider the same for their children. These findings indicate the home-educated group did not perceive they were academically or socially disadvantaged upon going to college.

 

College Experience: Academic and Social

 

According to the university admissions department, during the 2004-2005 academic year, the undergraduate grade point average (GPA) was 3.52. The mean GPA of the home-educated subsample, 3.56, is slightly higher than the population mean. The mean GPA of the public school subsample, 3.41, and the private school subsample, 3.45, is slightly lower than the population (Table 5). Home-schooled freshmen, sophomores and juniors reported a higher GPA than their peers of the same academic year. According to the admissions department, the mean score for incoming freshmen on the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) was 1123. Home-educated participants reported their average SAT score was 1219, which is higher than the reported scores of both private school respondents, 1148, and participants who attended public school, 1176. All three groups reported enrollment in a similar number of units. Each student reported their number of units and the mean score for all three groups ranged from 16.04-16.79. Slight differences exist between the academic achievements of the three subsample groups. Based on these three measures results show home-educated students achieved comparable academic success with their peers.

 

Table 4. Attitude Regarding K-12 Education and Home-Education

 

K-12 Experience Home Public Private
I am satisfied with my early educational experience. 89% 79% 90%
Compared to other students the quality of my early education was poor and put me at a disadvantage academically. 4% 7% 6%
I would consider homeschooling my children. 89% 29% 28%

 

Several questions were asked in regards to study skills and academic work ethic. Most of the home-educated respondents, 96%, reported using many different study strategies while 72% and 71% of public and private school students stated the same respectively (Table 6). Fifty-two percent of the public school sample agreed that “taking notes quickly during lecture is difficult.” Only half that amount, 25% of the home-educated sample agreed while 31% of the private school sample reported that note taking was a challenge. Forty-one percent of the private school sample stated: “Test taking is often frustrating. I am not a good test taker.” Of the public school sample 33% agreed they were frustrated by tests followed by 21% of the home-educated sample. The sample groups were asked whether they agreed with the statement: “It is difficult to organize my schedule.” Fifty-four percent of the public school sample, 46% of the home educated sample and 35% of the private school sample agreed that time management was a challenge. Participants were questioned about whether or not they felt they studied and worked to the best of their ability. A large majority of the home-educated group, 79%, reported satisfaction with their current grades because they were “working to the best of their ability,” while 70% of the private school group and 60% of the public school group agreed. Seventy nine percent of the home-educated group agreed to the statement: “I complete all assigned work for each course and sometimes more than what was assigned.” Of the private school sample 72% agreed and of the public school sample, 70%. Findings showed the home-educated group was as capable as their peers in utilizing study techniques and balancing time management.

 

Table 5. Academic Measures of Population, Sample and Subsample: GPA, SAT, Unit Totals

 

 

Total Population

Home

Public

Private

GPA

GPA

3.52

3.56

3.41

3.45
Freshman

3.64

3.41

3.39

Sophomores

3.66

3.37

3.6

Juniors

3.65

3.37

3.29

Seniors

3.32

3.48

3.53

SAT

1123

1219

1176

1148

Units

16.28

16.04

16.79

Table 6. Attitude Regarding Work Habits and Study Skills

 

Work Habits and Study Strategies

Home

Public

Private

I use many different study strategies.

96%

72%

71%

Taking notes quickly during lecture is difficult.

25%

52%

31%

Test taking is often frustrating. I am not a good test taker.

21%

33%

41%

It is difficult to organize my schedule.

46%

54%

35%

I am satisfied with my grades because I am studying / working to the best of my ability.

79%

60%

70%

I complete all assigned work.

79%

70%

72%

I was not prepared for the academic workload

14%

15%

14%

 

Cooperative and interpersonal skills play an important role in one’s education. Four questions involving elements of classroom interactions were posed in the questionnaire. Comparably all three sample groups reported being comfortable working with other students in a group setting (89-90%). While 97% of home-school respondents felt comfortable conversing with professors, 79% and 80% of the public and private school sample felt that same level of comfort (Table 7). All three sample groups feel more at ease with cooperative group settings and in interactions with professors than they do when participating in class discussion. The public school sample reported feeling comfortable participating in class discussion at a higher rate than their peers. Sixty-six percent of the public school sample, 59% of the home-educated sample and 43% of the private school sample agreed they “feel comfortable participating in class discussion.” Fifty-four percent of the home-educated sample admitted to sharing ideas in class only when called upon by the professor directly. On the same question, 49% percent of the private school sample and 40% of the public school sample agreed they participate “but only when the professor calls on me.” In areas of cooperative and interpersonal skills the home-educated group felt equally comfortable with students in groups, more comfortable than their peers when interacting with professors and slightly less comfortable than the public school group when participating in class discussion.

 

 

Table 7. Attitude Regarding Classroom Social Skills

 

Classroom Social Skills

Home

Public

Private

I feel comfortable working with other students in a small group setting.

89%

89%

90%

I feel comfortable interacting with professors.

97%

79%

80%

I feel comfortable participating in class discussion.

59%

66%

43%

I share my ideas in class but only when the professor calls on me.

54%

40%

49%

 

When asked to reflect on specific academic subjects and skills the home-educated sample reported feeling less prepared for delivering speeches/presentations and for the challenge of mathematics. Slightly more than half of the home-educated sample, 58% felt adequately prepared for speeches and presentations whereas 63% of the public school and 69% of the private school sample felt confident with those types of communication assignments (Table 8). About one-quarter of the home-educated and public school sample comparatively agreed they wish they were “more prepared for college level math. A slightly lower percentage, 20%, of the private school sample also agreed they would have benefited from more mathematics preparation. At a higher rate than their peers, 29% of the home-educated sample agreed formatting and writing papers in college were more difficult than expected. Whereas 24% of private school respondents and 21% of public school respondents agreed to the same statement. Despite some feelings of inadequacy, 75% of the home-educated sample and the private school sample agreed their secondary education prepared them to write research papers. Seventy-two percent of the public school sample also agreed they were prepared to write research papers. Yet homeschooled students reported feeling slightly less confident than their peers when writing college level term papers, performing in mathematics classes and when delivering speeches. It seems the home-educated students would welcome more preparation in those three areas. Fourteen percent of both the homeschooled and private school group agreed that they were not prepared for the academic workload. Comparably 15% of the public school group agreed about their lack of academic preparation. Despite the formative educational differences between the three subsamples, the vast majority of respondents felt academically prepared for university.

 

Table 8. Attitude Regarding Academic Ability

Academic Ability

Home

Public

Private

My education prepared me to deliver speeches and presentations.

58%

63%

69%

I wish I had been more prepared for college level math.

25%

24%

20%

Formatting and writing college level papers was more difficult than I expected.

29%

21%

24%

My high school education prepared me to write research papers, avoid plagiarism and use appropriate footnotes and citations.

75%

72%

75%

I was not prepared for the academic workload

14%

15%

14%

 

Formerly homeschooled students felt more confident with their grades, completing assignments, interacting with professors and with utilizing a variety of study strategies.

Socially homeschool participants reported feeling confident about their connection with the campus community and agreed they were involved in university activities and programs. Seventy-one percent of homeschool respondents admitted to participating in activities on campus where their peers agreed at lower percentages: 66% of the public school sample and 56% of the private school sample. Respondents selected from eight extracurricular options to describe their level of participation in campus programs—participants could mark as many activities as applied to their experience. All responses were tallied, percentages were calculated for each activity and each sample group and a comparison table was created (Table 9). The home-educated sample took part in sports and campus ministries at a lower rate than their peers but they participated in student missions, choir and forensics at a higher rate than the other sample groups. Seventy-one percent of the homeschool sample reported involvement in “other” activities on campus, whereas, 19% of the public school sample and 16% of the private school sample reported participation in other activities on campus.

A majority of participants agreed they could rely on another student to discuss their problems and concerns which shows a high level of meaningful relationships among the sampled student body (Table 10). Ninety-six percent of both home and public school respondents reported they discuss personal issues with another student and 90% of the private school sample reported the same. A higher percentage of the home-educated sample, 89%, agreed they felt connected to students on campus whereas 78% of the other two sample groups agreed they were connected to the campus community.

 

 

Table 9. Level of Participation in Social Activities in University

Activities

Home

(n=28)

Public

(n=136)

Private

(n=51)

Intramural

29%

35%

31%

Choir

25%

12%

14%

Intercollegiate sports

4%

7%

18%

Clubs

21%

28%

35%

Ministries

29%

43%

71%

Forensics

7%

0%

0%

Missions

29%

26%

20%

Other

71%

19%

16%

 

 

Table 10. Attitude Regarding Interpersonal Relationships and General Satisfaction

 

Interpersonal Relationships

Home

Public

Private

I can talk to another student about problems and concerns.

96%

96%

90%

Socially, I feel connected with students in the campus community.

89%

78%

78%

I adjusted to college life at the same rate as my friends.

82%

84%

89%

I talk regularly and openly with my parents about my life.

82%

77%

86%

I would say that I am very happy.

86%

80%

88%

I am glad that I attend this university.

96%

94%

96%

 

 

The sample was asked to respond to the following statement: “I adjusted to college life at the same rate as my friends.” The private school sample agreed at a higher rate than their peers in the other two sample groups. Eighty-nine percent of the private school sample, 84% of the public school sample and 82% of the home-educated sample felt they adjusted to university life in the same amount of time as their peers. Although, home-educated participants felt that their adjustment to college life was at a slightly slower rate than their friends, they considered themselves to be “happy” at a comparable rate with their peers and agreed they were “glad” to attend university. Eighty-eight percent of the private school sample, 86% of the home-educated sample and 80% of the public school sample identified themselves as being “very happy.” Overall, the student sample was overwhelmingly pleased with their university experience and 96% of home-educated and private schooled students reported: “I am glad that I attend this university.” Ninety-four percent of the public school sample agreed they were glad about their choice in university.

 

Discussion

 

Inevitably, each new phase of life produces a period of adjustment. The transition from home education to higher education is no exception. Home-educated students, like all students, must adjust and transition to the world of the undergraduate. This study assumes a transition period exists for each member of the participant sample but through comparison sought to determine if unique types of adjustment issues specifically faced the home-educated subsample. While correlations cannot be drawn from this study and universally generalized to suit the experience of every college-bound homeschooler, identifiable areas for growth can be gleaned from the findings to the benefit of students and educators. This study suggests several issues that affect a home-educated student’s adjustment to higher education. Based on the findings, several recommendations are offered to aid parent educators as they prepare their students for a successful transition to university.

First, to make the transition easier, home-educated students could take advantage of opportunities to interact in cooperative groups and classroom discussions prior to attending university. Findings showed group courses, community activities and programs were integrated into the curricular and extra-curricular experience of the home-educated subsample. Ninety-six percent of the home-educated subsample reported attending group classes or activities during their elementary years and 75% participated in the same types of groups as secondary students (Table 9). In follow-up interviews, several members of the home-educated subsample said they felt prepared for the rigors of the university classroom because they had attended academic co-ops, cooperative study programs or community college prior to university. Classroom interaction and cooperative experience provide a key element of preparation necessary to ensure college readiness.

Second, parent-educators should become aware of coursework required by universities and prepare their college-bound student to interact successfully with the curriculum requirements. The home-educated subsample reported a lack of confidence with term papers, mathematics classes, and speeches. A college-bound, home educated student would benefit from learning formal and extemporaneous speech methods as a secondary student before embarking on their university experience. Prior knowledge of a subject or skill will provide the student a measure of confidence when faced with college level courses. Adequate preparation in academic subjects will ensure a student does not need remediation. Preparation for general education requirements allows the home-educated student to confidently interact with the university course of study, thus easing their transition to higher education.

Third, orientation programs exist at many universities that offer a variety of activities and seminars to acquaint prospective students with the university ethos. Orientations exist because most students, regardless of their educational background, encounter the bewilderment of matriculation and face the uncertainty of complex social norms. Institutional events might range from weekend visits, with overnighters in a dorm room, to classroom observations, financial aid seminars and campus tours. Home-educated students may take advantage of orientation events to help alleviate uncertainty and provide familiarity with the campus before matriculation. If an orientation program doesn’t exist at a preferred university, it is possible to become familiar with college life in alternate ways. Research the institution using the internet and personalize a field-trip to the campus. Attend a sporting event, eat in the cafeteria, and tour the library or computer lab. If distance prevents attending out-of-state events, tour a local community college, or audit a class. Becoming acquainted with any college will build confidence because familiarity diminishes the dread of the unknown.

Although areas for growth were reported by the home-educated subsample these students felt they adjusted to college life at relatively the same rate as the public school subsample and their scores show their ability to rebound as successful students. A growing body of research has emerged within the last decade to assess the academic and social abilities of home-educated students and the results are overwhelmingly positive (Lines, 1999; Ray, 2004b, Rudner, 1999). This study also highlights the resiliency of the home-educated subsample and shows an overall confidence with study strategies, assignments, interactions and assessments. The home-educated subsample receive comparable scores on the SAT test and maintained an equivalent grade point average in their university studies. They considered themselves more confident with adult and small group interaction, were involved in meaningful relationships and activities on campus and were overwhelmingly satisfied with their university experience. The measure of success attained by the home-educated undergraduates demonstrates the proficiency of their home-based education. The home-educated participants demonstrated their readiness for university and their ability to integrate into the academic and social whirlwind of university life. There is much we can learn from these students who successfully crossed the divide from home-education to higher education.

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